Tag Archives: efficiency

The Meaning of Unity in Energy Conversion Systems by Jim Murray

The Meaning of Unity in Energy Conversion Systems by Jim Murray
The Meaning of Unity in Energy Conversion Systems by Jim Murray

Initially, it had been assumed that a simple ratio computed by dividing the output power by the input power would provide a reliable yardstick for motor power efficiency. The basic idea, was sound, for the closer the quotient came to unity, the nearer the motor efficiency would be to 100%. Hence began the so-called “Quest for Unity.”

However, early “electric engines” were very inefficient, probably delivering no more than 30% of the electrical input power to the output shaft. Therefore, it quickly became evident that not all of the applied power was being converted to a mechanical output. Clearly, inefficiencies were involved, and they would have to be accounted for. Until this was complete, the simplified approach to establishing a Factor of Unity could not be realized.

What is remarkable, in the history of motor development, is the curious degree of synergy that seems to have accompanied these early pioneering efforts. Between 1839 and 1850 the British Brew Master James Joule conducted an elegant series of experiments, in which he sought to unify electrical, chemical and thermal phenomena by demonstrating their inter-convertibility and their quantitative equivalence. The results of Joule’s work were published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, with a very impressive title: “On the Mechanical Equivalence of Heat.”

The contributions of Lord Kelvin must be considered next. His paper, “The Dynamical Equivalent of Heat,” published in 1851, contended that energy could be “lost to man irrecoverably; but not lost to the material world”. Thomson was thus the first person to understand that all energy changes involve energy dissipation, and losses.

During the second half of the nineteenth century Kelvin and other scientists, including Clausius, Rankine, Maxwell and, Boltzmann, continued to develop these ideas. Their combined efforts resulted in the establishment of the Science of Thermodynamics; with Conservation of Energy as its First Law and the Dissipation of Energy as its Second Law.

Accordingly, motor researchers were thus made aware of the extreme importance of classifying all known motor losses, and accounting for them with the same degree of accuracy as would be exhibited in the well established science of corporate book-keeping.

Ultimately, such practices would lead to the development of two principle kinds of Efficiency Measurements, both very valuable in all research pertaining to rotating components, but, particularly valuable for developing an understanding of over-unity as a scientific fact. Both efficiency concepts shall be fully explained in this presentation.

To get your copy now, go here: The Meaning of Unity in Energy Conversion Systems

Use this coupon to receive 25% off for a limited time: UNITY25

Cold Incandescent Light Bulbs?

Just when you thought incandescent bulbs were going out, they’ve been “reinvented” to be even more efficient than LEDs!

Normally Incandescent bulbs are about 5-10% efficient as most of the energy is converted to wasted heat and this age-old problem has finally been solved.

We’re literally talking about recycling light in a two step process.

The key is to create a two-stage process, the researchers report. The first stage involves a conventional heated metal filament, with all its attendant losses. But instead of allowing the waste heat to dissipate in the form of infrared radiation, secondary structures surrounding the filament capture this radiation and reflect it back to the filament to be re-absorbed and re-emitted as visible light. These structures, a form of photonic crystal, are made of Earth-abundant elements and can be made using conventional material-deposition technology.

That second step makes a dramatic difference in how efficiently the system converts electricity into light. One quantity that characterizes a lighting source is the so-called luminous efficiency, which takes into account the response of the human eye. Whereas the luminous efficiency of conventional incandescent lights is between 2 and 3 percent, that of fluorescents (including CFLs) is between 7 and 15 percent, and that of most commercial LEDs between 5 and 20 percent, the new two-stage incandescents could reach efficiencies as high as 40 percent, the team says.

The first proof-of-concept units made by the team do not yet reach that level, achieving about 6.6 percent efficiency. But even that preliminary result matches the efficiency of some of today’s CFLs and LEDs, they point out. And it is already a threefold improvement over the efficiency of today’s incandescents.

The team refers to their approach as “light recycling,” says Ilic, since their material takes in the unwanted, useless wavelengths of energy and converts them into the visible light wavelengths that are desired. “It recycles the energy that would otherwise be wasted,” says Soljačić.

The rest of the article available here: http://news.mit.edu/2016/nanophotonic-incandescent-light-bulbs-0111 mentions that the crystal is created with readily available natural ingredients so cost will probably not be an issue if they actually get these out to the public.

Halbach Array 1.4 Pound Motor Delivers 7 Horsepower

Halbach Array Lightweight Motor

A classic three-phase 7 horsepower motor can easily be over 100 pounds and is designed to run around 1800 rpm. This higher power density motor delivers this kind of horsepower at almost 5 times the speed. It has different applications and windows of operation so it isn’t an apples to apples comparison. However, the developers do appear to win the bragging rights for the most energy dense motor commercially available.

Launchpoint Technologies Halbach Array Motor
Launchpoint Technologies Halbach Array Motor

Launchpoint Technologies website says, “With a total weight of only 1.4 pounds, this motor produces 7 horsepower at 8400 rpm with 95 percent efficiency. At 5 horsepower per pound, this motor has a higher power density than any other motor on the market.

There are countless applications for this kind of motor such as improvements in battery life in electric cars, electric bikes, electric-powered aircraft and the list goes on.

Halbach Array
Halbach Array

What makes this advancement possible is the use of the Halbach Array, which is a clever organization of the polarity of multiple magnets to create a very strong field on one side while almost totally negating the field on the other. Here is an old discussion on the Halback Array on Energetic Forum with some references: Halbach Array

Here is an early demo of the Launchpoint Technologies Halbach Array motor:

Halbach Array

A very interesting benefit of the Halbach Array is that it defeats Earnshaw’s Theorem which says, “states that a collection of point charges cannot be maintained in a stable stationary equilibrium configuration solely by the electrostatic interaction of the charges.”

For example, if you took a ring magnet and had another magnet on a shaft in side of that ring magnet, you wouldn’t be able to get it to stay right in the middle even if you spin it – if you were trying to create a magnetic bearing for example.

Halbach Array Magnetic BearingHowever, with the Halbach Array, you can. With the clever arrangement of the polarities of various permanent magnets, you can indeed get a magnet to spin inside of this field and maintain stability in the middle without it sticking to any particular spot.

Halbach Array Mangetic Bearing
Halbach Array Mangetic Bearing

Learn more at Launchpoint Technologies

Silent Refrigeration

A refrigerator uses a traditional heat pump. A compressor is powered usually by electricity and that circulates a “refrigerant” like freon or some synthetic version through some tubes that go through heat exchangers – the bottom line is that is pulls the heat out of the fridge to make it cold.

An AC is just another variation of this as is all other heat pump technologies such as heat pump hot water heaters. Some give you cold while expelling the heat and some give you heat while expelling the cold.

Heat pumps are a really great technology and are very reliable and have made our lives much easier. There are a few drawbacks such as the noise and occasional maintenance due to moving parts.

Phononic is a company, which has eliminated these problems by building a completely silent and solid state refrigerator using hundred year old Peltier junctions…they’re semiconductors basically that get hot on one side and cold on the other.

Peltier’s definitely work but their drawback is that they are very inefficient…it takes a lot of watt hours to produce any substantial heating or cooling, but Phononic has scaled them up and have made them more efficient than ever. Normally, they’re under 10% efficient, but now they’re over 30%!

Phononic heat pump

Even at 30%, they can’t compete with heat pumps in terms of Coefficient of Performance (COP), but being that they are much smaller than normal compressor heat pumps and they’re silent, they do have their place.

While this advancement in Peltier technology isn’t going to get anyone off the grid, it is a very welcome improvement as a three times increase in efficiency in anything doesn’t happen every day.

To put that into perspective – the automobile engine was commonly under 20% efficient and the newest cars on the road today are lucky to achieve 30% efficiency – and that is over many, many decades of automotive advancements.

Go here for more of the story on Phononic: http://www.treehugger.com/clean-technology/your-refrigerator-running-soon-it-will-be-doing-doing-it-solid-state.html

Saphonion Reinvents Wind Energy

It’s no secret that on a large scale, wind energy is not a viable solution as the maintenance is too high amongst countless other problems. It’s actually so bad that it would fail if it weren’t for the government subsidies to keep it floating.

Wind energy on a small scale is much more sensible, but even so, it isn’t that efficient. There is something called the Betz Limit that states that no wind turbine can capture more than 59.3% of the kinetic energy of the wind, but so far wind turbines only capture 30-40% of the wind.

There is a new wind technology that is blowing everything else away and it is 2.3 TIMES more efficient than blade technology and at a 45% reduction in cost.

Saphonian
Saphonian

Welcome to the Saphonian – a bladeless wind generator that takes the energy from the wind and uses it to pump up hydraulic accumulators. Watch it in action – this video is in French but you can see the obvious mechanism:

Visit their website to learn more about this revolutionary wind technology: http://www.saphonenergy.com/